Numerous clinical and basic research projects are ongoing in the Division, and involvement by fellows during the course of their training is mandatory. The conventional two-year clinical fellowship track is usually not sufficient for those trainees interested in academic medicine to gain adequate research expertise. A third year of training is generally available to interested Fellows, by individual arrangement with the division director and research mentor. Fellows who are interested in bench research are strongly encouraged to spend at least 24 months in the laboratory. The research interests of the Division faculty are as described in their faculty biographies. However, research Fellows are not constrained to work only in the division of Nephrology laboratories. In particular, strong programs on campus in Pharmacology, Molecular and Cell Biology, and Pathology offer additional outstanding opportunities for postdoctoral research training. In addition, there are multiple opportunities to participate in mentored clinical research. Fellows interested in clinical research are required to obtain the Masters of Science in Clinical Research.